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Kucher A.N., Iuliia A. Koroleva Iu.A., Nazarenko M.S.
Biochemistry (Moscow), 2024. 89(1), 130-147.
DOI: 10.1134/S0006297924010085

Aortic aneurysm (AA) is a life-threatening condition with a high prevalence and risk of severe complications. The aim of this review was to summarize the data on the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the development of AAs of various location. Within less than a decade of studies on the role of lncRNAs in AA, using experimental and bioinformatic approaches, scientists have obtained the data confirming the involvement of these molecules in metabolic pathways and pathogenetic mechanisms critical for the aneurysm development. Regardless of the location of pathological process (thoracic or abdominal aorta), AA was found to be associated with changes in the expression of various lncRNAs in the tissue of the affected vessels. The consistency of changes in the expression level of lncRNA, mRNA and microRNA in aortic tissues during AA development has been recordedand regulatory networks implicated in the AA pathogenesis in which lncRNAs act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA networks) have been identified. It was found that the same lncRNA can be involved in different ceRNA networks and regulate different biochemical and cellular events; on the other hand, the same pathological process can be controlled by different lncRNAs. Despite some similarities in pathogenesis and overlapping of involved lncRNAs, the ceRNA networks described for abdominal and thoracic AA are different. Interactions between lncRNAs and other molecules, including those participating in epigenetic processes, have also been identified as potentially relevant to the AA pathogenesis. The expression levels of some lncRNAs were found to correlate withclinically significant aortic features and biochemical parameters. Identification of regulatory RNAs functionally significant in the aneurysm development is important for clarification of disease pathogenesis and will provide a basis for early diagnostics and development of new preventive and therapeutic drugs.

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